Muslim music is a music or instrument that in a narrower sense is related to the religious practice of Islam or, in a broader sense, to a predominantly Muslim society.
The classic homeland of Islam is the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East, North Africa and Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Turkestan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Because Islam is a multicultural religion, it leads to a diverse musical expression of its followers.
Above all, classical Arabic music, Persian music and Indian music have shaped and influenced Islamic forms of music all over the world and through the ages.
The Seljuk Turks, a Muslim nomadic nation, conquered Caliphate and Anatolia in the 11th century, and also strongly influenced Islamic music. In the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire was the legacy of the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia, making Turkish music important and able to significantly influence Islamic music.
The term Islamic music is unclear and, in popular usage, refers not only to religious and religious music, but also to various forms of secular music that have developed in areas. there is a majority of Muslims or a form of expression of Muslim minorities.
It includes traditions and styles from different regions and times, irrespective of serious and popular music and can be used for medieval courtesy music in Kalifehof as well as for music Gnawa ritual, Lombok’s diverse music or for hip-hop by Black Muslims in the United States.
Instead of a specific, clear and clear style, he describes regional and culturally varied musical expressions, which also have certain requirements made by Muslim religions. Very different ways or sometimes without clear identification roles.
In addition, some cultures summarized in this term do not have their own musical concepts but are clearly defined from dance and ritual. On the other hand, many things can be interpreted as music based on certain melodic sounds according to European standards that are often clearly distinguished from those by Muslim listeners, especially adhān and Koran chants. .
The attitude of traditional Islamic scholarships for music
The views of the first religious scholars and Islamic legalists on the legitimacy and utility of music are unclear and contrary to the consensus consensus on the prohibition of describing living creatures in art. In which there are few conflicting opinions, different and no controversy.
In the absence of clear instructions on the Koran about music, the political debate Samā2 was conducted primarily on the basis of hadith literature.
Specifically, the intimacy of music with other acts of sin is understood as consumption of wine, prostitution and ecstasy is a problem. Correspondingly, traditional collections also contain special prophetic traditions that disagree about the slaves that are spreading in pre-Muslim Arabs, three who have rested including alcohol and obscene beyond their singing.
At the same time, above all, the singing of the human’s pure voice is only rarely considered to be reprehensible. The roar of the donkey, clearly called ugly in Sura 31:19, is often paired with a great human voice. Accordingly, there is also a strong cappella tradition of cultural singing.
For the use of musical instruments, different lawyers. Although tradition also refers to King David’s musical talents and playing harp and flute skills, but the use of some musical instruments, especially stringed instruments, contrasts with the Arab Daf drums, which are The obvious use of harp 4 is not often considered banned.1 Even so, even musical instruments such as Oud are one of the most important musical instruments of Islamic cultural space.
Finally, in Sufism, Islamic mysticism, ritual music, accompanied by musical instruments, is often not only considered an essential element of worship.5 Accordingly, there are many forms of Islamic music. different influenced by local culture.
Music is mainly handed down by mouth. Private symbol systems are developed late and are almost uncommon; This is partly due to the quality of the performance that is often measured by the audience’s improvised talent.
For example, the songs collected by al-Isfahānī in the tenth century in Kitāb al-Aghānī (the “Song Book”) are only provided with a few suggestions, from which the melodies and practice Today’s songs are rarely reproduced. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, Western sign systems have been used, but they only partially fit to record the harmonious and melodic characteristics of these musical traditions.
In contrast, the lyrics themselves are known. Usually they are the set of famous poems, in repeated prayers of music or prayers of God or Prophets.
Forms of Islamic music
Modal systems like Maqāmāt Arabic, Dastgāh-hā of Persian and Indian Raga have spread throughout the country and also strongly influenced each other. Traditional forms of cultural recitation without a accompaniment instrument, such as reading adhān and Quran, are not usually counted as music.
Music for religious celebrations
An occasion for performing music is public religious celebrations, such as Mawlid, Muhammad’s birthday. Shiites performed passionate musical-based plays to commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, in Iran, for example, as part of Ta’zieh performances; During Muharram funeral, Aschura music is played.
Music Sufi → Main article: Sufi music
One of the most important forms of Islamic music is Sufi music. It originated from Iran and spread from there to Turkey and the Indian subcontinent. The most famous in the West is the Dhikr service of singing, rhythmic dancing Mevlevi of Turkey.
However, the Sufi can also perform religious chants in public places to entertain and edit listeners. The mood is probably religious, but the church is not gathered to worship here. Concert of spiritual songs called Mehfil-e-Sama ‘in Turkey. Song forms include İlahi7 and Nefes.
In northern India and Pakistan, their concerts and musical styles are called 17: wali. A traditional program of 17: wali includes Hamd, a worship song for God without accompaniment, Naat, a song praising the Prophet Muhammad, occasionally having drums, manqabat, praising the teachers The famous Sufi Brotherhood belongs to musicians and Ghaselen – Songs about ecstasy and passionate desire, using the language of romantic love to express the soul’s desire for spiritual connection.
During Shi’a’s concerts, Naat was praised by Ali, also known as Manqabat and Marsiya, a complaint about the deaths of many Ali’s followers in the Battle of Karbala.
The musical singing program is becoming more and more popular: it is a genre of music and concerts that are especially attractive to those who want to listen to artists who sing without participating in the religious field.
Therefore, some artists ignore long hymns, move directly from hymns to popular romantic songs, or even completely contain religious content. Traditionalists and more conservative followers are increasingly against criticism.
Other examples of traditional Islamic music
An example of popular religious music in North Africa is the music of Gnawa, a minority in Morocco, also based on ancient African traditions. Manzuma is the name given to ethical songs of Ethiopians, with special forms including Hazinu nimmihawi. Madīh nabawī is the Arab hymn for the Prophet Muhammad.
Contemporary Islamic music
Especially popular at present and above among Muslims in European countries and in the United States is Nashid with representatives like Sami Yusuf, Zain Bhikha and Muslim Yusuf, a form of rhythmic singing mostly from remove accompaniment instruments just by using Voice humans or with the help of percussion instruments. The same applies to rap and hip-hop forms, represented by Outlandish and Native Deen, for example.
One of the most popular forms of Islamic music in Indonesia today is the songs Sholaw (lagu-lagu sholaw). These are the praises of Prophet Muhammad in Arabic. They are often sung in various Islamic rituals and are therefore known to the Indonesian people. One of the most famous Sholaw singers in Indonesia is Haddad Alwi. He does not see music as the true goal of his activity, but Dakwah.
There is a long tradition of instrumental accompaniment of religious songs. This can be done with a variety of musical instruments, depending on local music traditions.
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- Drum: Daf (Persian and Kurd drums), Bendir (Drum frame in North Africa and Middle East), Zarb (Drum Mug Persian), Rebana (Drum in Muslim countries in Southeast Asia), T’bol (Maghreb)
- Idioms: Cong, Qarqaba (Maghreb)
- Stringed instruments: Rabāb (String instruments of Turkey and Arab), Kamantsche (Persian stringed instrument), Tar (Long neck of the Central Asian sound), Oud (Arabic antlers), Santur and Qanun (Persian or Arabic)
- Wind tools: Ney (flute), Shehnai (Indian reed musical instrument), Zummara (twin pipes from North Africa to the Middle East)
- Keyboard instrument: Harmonium (in India and Pakistan since the late 19th century)
- Jenkins, Jean and Olsen, Poul Rovsing (1976). Music and musical instruments in the Muslim world. Muslim world festival. NO.0905035119.
- Habib Hassan Touma (1975). Music of Arabs. Heinrichshofen, Wilhelmshaven 1975. ISBN 3795901820.
- Shiloah, Amnon (1995). Music in the Muslim world: A study of social culture. Wayne State University Publisher. Detroit. Code 0-8143-2589-0