The Young’s modulus of nickel is Y = 2 × 1011 N/m2 . Its molar mass is Mmolar = 0.059 kg and its density is rho = 8900 kg/m3 . Given a bar of nickel of length 13 m, what time does it take for sound waves to propagate from one end to the other? Avogadro’s number is NA = 6.02 × 1023 atoms. Answer in units of s.

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Answer:

Atomic Size and Mass:

convert given density to kg/m^3 = 8900kg/m^3 2) convert to moles/m^3 (kg/m^3 * mol/kg) = 150847 mol/m^3 (not rounding in my actual calculations) 3) convert to atoms/m^3 (6.022^23 atoms/mol) = 9.084e28 atoms/m^3 4) take the cube root to get the number of atoms per meter, = 4495309334 atoms/m 5) take the reciprocal to get the diameter of an atom, = 2.2245e-10 m/atom 6) find the mass of one atom (kg/mol * mol/atoms) = 9.7974e-26 kg/atom Young’s Modulus: Y=(F/A)/(dL/L) 1) F=mg = (45kg)(9.8N/kg) = 441 N 2) A = (0.0018m)^2 = 3.5344e-6 m^2 3) dL = 0.0016m 4) L = 2.44m 5) Y = 1.834e11 N/m^2 Interatomic Spring Stiffness: Ks,i = dY 1) From above, diameter of one atom = 2.2245e-10 m 2) From above, Y = 1.834e11 N/m^2 3) Ks,i = 40.799 N/m (not rounding in my actual calculations) Speed of Sound: v = ωd 1) ω = √(Ks,i / m,a) 2) From above, Ks,i = 40.799 N/m 3) From above, m,a = 9.7974e-26 kg 4) ω=2.0406e13 N/m*kg 5) From above, d=2.2245e-10 m 6) v=ωd = 4539 m/s (not rounding in actual calculations) Time Elapsed: 1) length sound traveled = L+dL = 2.44166 m 2) From above, speed of sound = 4539 m/s 3) T = (L+dL)/v = 0.000537505 s