Explain concept of donor levels and accepter levels in extrinsic semiconductors and How can Fermi level be defined for conductors , insulato

Question

Explain concept of donor levels and accepter levels in extrinsic semiconductors and How can Fermi level be defined for conductors , insulators and semiconductors when temperature increases above zero Kelvin.

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7 months 2021-07-19T07:30:36+00:00 1 Answers 0 views 0

DONORS: If the material for which it substitutes has more electrons than the original

ACCEPTORS: If the replacement material has fewer electrons than the original material

Fermi level: the point where the probability of finding the last electron is ½

Explanation:

When in a semiconductor material a small fraction of an element is replaced by another with different valences, an excess charge is created.

If the material for which it substitutes has more electrons than the original, there is an excess of electrons, these excess electrons are weakly bound in the material and their orbits are large, in an energy versus moment diagram their energy places them a little more below the conduction band, these materials are called DONORS.

If the replacement material has fewer electrons than the original material, one electron is missing to complete the bonds, so there is a movement of the other electrons, an easier way to analyze this movement of the (n-1) electrons is to suppose that The missing charge has a positive charge and to study its movement, this positive charge is called a hole, its binding energy is small so the orbit of the hole is large, in an energy diagram it is located a little above the band of valence, these are called ACCEPTORS

The Fermi level is defined as the point where the probability of finding the last electron is ½, when the temperature is changed the density of states of the bands changes, therefore the location point moves, but its [probability remains ½