An 80 kg astronaut has gone outside his space capsule to do some repair work. Unfortunately, he forgot to lock his safety tether in place, a

Question

An 80 kg astronaut has gone outside his space capsule to do some repair work. Unfortunately, he forgot to lock his safety tether in place, and he has drifted 5.0 m away from the capsule. Fortunately, he has a 1000 W portable laser with fresh batteries that will operate it for 1.0 h. His only chance is to accelerate himself toward the space capsule by firing the laser in the opposite direction. He has a 10-h supply of oxygen.
a. How long will it take him to reach safety?

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Doris 6 months 2021-07-16T16:53:19+00:00 1 Answers 26 views 0

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    2021-07-16T16:54:34+00:00

    Answer:

    the time taken by the astronaut to reach safety = 9.8 hr

    Explanation:

    The equation for intensity can be written as :

    I = \frac{P}{A}

    where :

    \frac{I}{c}= \frac{F}{A}

    Replacing that into the above previous equation; we have:

    \frac{P}{Ac}=\frac{F}{A}

    F = \frac{P}{c}

    However ; the force needed to push the astronaut is as follows:

    F = ma

    where ;

    m = mass of the  astronaut and a = its acceleration

    we as well say;

    \frac{P}{c} = ma

    a = \frac{P}{mc}

    Replacing P with 1000 W ; m with 80 kg and 3*10^{8} \  m/s for  c

    Then; a = \frac{1000 \ W}{(80)(3.0*10^8)}

    a = 4.2*10^{-8} \ m/s

    It is also known that the battery will run for one hour and after which the battery on the laser will run out

    Then to determine the change in the position after the first hour ; we have:

    \Delta x_1 = \frac{1}{2}*4.2*10^{-8} \ m/s^2 ) (1.0 \ h)^2

    \Delta x_1 = \frac{1}{2}*4.2*10^{-8} \ m/s^2 ) (1.0 *3600 s)^2

    = 0.27 m

    Furthermore, the final velocity of the astronaut is determined as:

    v_1 = at_1

    where ;

    v_1 = final \ velocity

    replacing t_1 = 1.0 \ h and a =  4.2*10^{-8} \ m/s; Then:

    v_1 = (4.2*10^8 \ m/s * 1.0 \ h * \frac{ 3600\ s}{1.0 \ h})

    v_1 =  1.51 *10^{-4} \ m/s

    Also; when he drifted 5.0 m away from the capsule; the distance is far short of the 5 m but he still have 9 hours left of oxygen . In addition to that, he acceleration is also zero and the final velocity remains the same, so:

    To find the final distance traveled by the astronaut ;we have:

    \Delta x_2 = d - \Delta x_1

    where;

    \Delta x_2 = the final distance

    d = total distance

    So;

    \Delta x_2 = 5 m - 0.27 m \\ \\ \Delta x_2 = 4.73 \ m

    The time taken to reach the final distance can be calculated as:

    t_2 = \frac{\Delta x_2 }{v_1}

    where;

    t_2 = is the  time to  reach the final distance

    Replacing 4.73 for {\Delta x_2 } and  1.51*10^{-4} m/s for v_1

    t_2 = \frac{4.73 \ m }{1.51*10^{-4} \ m/s}

    t_2 = 31500 \ s (\frac{1.0 \ h}{3600 \ s} )

    t_2 = 8.8 \ h

    We knew the laser was operated for 1 hour; thus the total time taken by the astronaut to  reach the final distance is the sum of the time taken to reach the final distance and the operated time of the laser.

    Hence ; the time taken by the astronaut to reach safety = 9.8 hr

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